Types of 3D Reconstruction

The analysis accessed here provides images from the UCSD 3-D reconstructions for most of the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (ISEE) interplanetary scintillation (IPS) data from years 2000 to the present. (ISEE changed its name from the Solar Terrestrial Laboratory, STELab, in the year 2015). These images include Fisheye and Hammer-Aitoff brightness representations of the heliosphere observed from Earth, a remote observer view, an ecliptic-plane cut, and an ecliptic-coordinate meridional cut at the location of the Sun-Earth line. The IPS analyses are presented as completely and continuously as possible through this interval on the hemisphere of the Sun that the instrument was able to access. In years earlier than 2010 all STELab arrays stopped operation in the winter months to mitigate array damage due to snow loading on the antennas. Currently the ISEE Toyokawa IPS array only provides g-level data during winter months, and no remotely-sensed IPS velocity data are available at this time. The g-level data are employed as density proxy that has had an r-2 fall-off removed from them to show the extent of structures from near the Sun to far from it. This fall-off is also imposed on the remotely-sensed brightness maps to show essentially the same effect from near the Sun to far from it in elongation (see Jackson et al., 2008; Advances in Geosciences: Solar and Terrestrial Science 21, 339−366).

The tomographic analysis gives a model fit determined to within seconds of each IPS velocity and g-level measurement, from which a long-term temporal base has been removed over the period of one Carrington rotation (27 days). This base is determined by assuming a g-level measurement of 1.0 maps to the mean value of density for that rotation. Each line of sight value from the ISEE array is presumed to have equal validity as it is fit to the tomographic model. When the number of data values is too low for coverage in a specific sky area, the values in the reconstructions are left blank. Data near the Earth and along the Sun-Earth line are supplemented by using one-hour in-situ data from near Earth (Jackson et al., 2010, Solar Phys. 265, 245-256; Jackson et al., 2013, Solar Phys. 285, 151-165) in a weighted average to supplement the remotely-sensed IPS values. An error plot shows the relative numbers of lines of sight (“LOS”) that cross to provide the modeled IPS velocity and density values at any given location within the volume. Further SMEI tomographic modeling analysis using this technique that includes an interactive data presentation capability, is available at the NASA Goddard Community Coordinate Modeling Center (CCMC). For more information about this 3-D reconstruction analysis the user is referred to the references describing this technique. The volumetric data used to produce these images are stored at UCSD and can be accessed via anonymous ftp to provide further data imagery using IDL software extant at http://ips.ucsd.edu/help/smei/pro_frames.html and SolarSoft.